Individual nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from three different populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto and one population each of X. bricolensis, X. californicum, and X. rivesi were tested in the laboratory for their ability to transmit the following North American nepoviruses: cherry rasp leaf (CRLV), tobacco ringspot (TobRSV), and two strains of tomato ringspot (TomRSV). X. californicum and X. rivesi nematodes transmitted all four viruses, but X. rivesi transmitted the viruses more frequently. X. bricolensis nematodes transmitted only the two serologically distinguishable strains of TomRSV but were more efficient vectors of the peach stem pitting (PSP) strain than of the prune brown line (PBL) strain of this virus. Nematodes from each of the three populations of X. americanum transmitted TobRSV but not TomRSV-PBL, while those from populations from Arkansas and California also transmitted TomRSV-PSP and those from Pennsylvania transmitted CRLV. The transmission of all three nepoviruses by individuals of X. americanum, X. californicum, and X. rivesi contrasts with the very narrow specificity of transmission that exists between indigenous European nepoviruses and their vector species from the genera Longidorus and Xiphinema.