Benzothiadiazole (BTH) enhanced the accumulation of soluble and cell-wall-bound phenolics in strawberry leaves and also improved the resistance to powdery mildew infection under greenhouse conditions. The most pronounced change was seen in the levels of ellagitannins, which increased up to 2- to 6-fold 4 days after the BTH application, but persisted only in the inoculated plants. The induction of phenolic metabolism by BTH was also reflected in the fruits, several compounds being increased in inoculated, BTH-treated plants. Basal salicylic acid (SA) content was high in strawberry leaves, but increased in a similar fashion to other phenolics after the treatments. Several phenolic compounds were identified in strawberries for the first time. For example, ellagic acid deoxyhexose, three agrimoniin-like ellagitannins, sanguiin H-10- and lambertianin C-like ellagitannins in the leaves, ellagic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and kaempferol hexose in the cell-wall-bound fraction of the leaves, and kaempferol malonylglucoside in the fruits. The findings show that BTH can enhance the accumulation of phenolics in strawberry plants which may then be involved in the BTH-induced resistance to powdery mildew.