A survey was done in 1998 to determine whether raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was established in raspberry fruiting plantations in Scotland. Raspberry-producing holdings were selected according to geographical area and size. Samples (201), each comprising 60 shoots per stock, were obtained from 77 holdings and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA-positive shoots from each infected stock were grafted onto raspberry cv. Glen Clova, which is resistant to the Scottish-type isolate of RBDV (RBDV-S), to establish whether the virus is a resistance-breaking (RB) isolate. RBDV was detected in 22% of the stocks sampled, with 2-80% incidence of infection. No RBDV was in any of the 40 plantations containing cultivars resistant to RBDV-S or in Glen Clova plants, which were grafted successfully with samples from 15 infected plantations, indicating that no RB isolates were detected. The percentage of infected plantations increased with time from the planting date. In order to investigate possible sources of infection, ELISA for RBDV was made in 1999 on samples of stocks of raspberry cultivars (Autumn Bliss, Delight, Glen Ample, Glen Clova, Glen Lyon, Glen Moy, Glen Prosen, Glen Rosa, Leo, Malling Admiral, Malling Jewel and Tulameen) entered for the lowest certified grade (Standard Grade) in Scotland and, in 1994-97, on certified stocks planted with material originating from outside Scotland. No RBDV was detected in any of the samples. RBDV was found only rarely in samples of wild raspberry in Angus and Perthshire.