Annual ridging along raspberry rows grown on the stool system consistently reduced cane production compared with that on plots grown without ridging. This was to some extent offset by increased yield of fruit/cane, but the overall effect was a reduction of 9% in the cumulative yield/ha over 6 years. Ridging during the establishment phase only (first 2 years) also had adverse effects on cane production, persisting well after the cessation of ridging, and cumulative yield was no better than on annually ridged plots. It is suggested that ridging should be avoided except in the year of planting, when it may give some protection against desiccation or herbicide injury. The effect of ridging was independent of the method of weed and sucker control practised. Rotary cultivation plus hand-hoeing resulted in greater cane production in the crop row than a system involving overall application of simazine supplemented by hand-hoeing, but plots with fewer canes again produced a higher yield of fruit/cane and cumulatively there was no difference in yield/ha between the 2 systems.