In Scotland the dormancy period of the hardy variety Carnival started and was completed earlier than in the moderately hardy Malling Jewel, while in Malling Promise, although occurring over the same time sequence as that of Malling Jewel, it was less intense. The dormancy period in M24 and M14 occurred much later, was not intense and these selections were very prone to winter injury. Climatic conditions in Southern Ireland induced Malling Jewel and Malling Promise to approximate to the pattern of M24 in Scotland. A second dormancy period in Carnival was short but in Malling Jewel it persisted several months. Carnival, because of its earlier dormancy, is thought to be hardy under a wide range of conditions.