The development of air-assisted spraying technology for use in raspberries, black currants and other minor cane and bush fruits in Europe is reviewed. The effect of changing canopy structure and cultural practice on the location of major pests and diseases in these crops during the season is described in relation to spray application. Comparisons between traditional hydraulic sprayers and those using air- assistance have shown that in some situations there is potential for increased work rates and reduced volumes with equivalent or improved cover of target and efficacy of applied pesticides.